Recent Draft-Time Management Can Achieve Success at University for GCU Students

Time Management Can Achieve Success at University for GCU Students



            The concept of time management has been addressed in many sectors of development. Time is a non renewable resource, available to all people in the world. However, majority of the students in institutions of higher learning fail to utilize time effectively; an idea that contributes to poor performance in class, academic stress and psychological dysfunctions. The study examines how time management can achieve success at the university among GCU students. Qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used coupled with explanatory cross-sectional survey research design.  Structured and unstructured questionnaires will be used in data collection. Pie charts, tables and bar graphs will be used in representing analysed data. Excel Spread Sheet together with a Statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) will be employed in analysing data.


            Time is one of the most valuable resources man has at his disposal. It is an imperative ingredient towards attaining social, political and economic goals both at the individual, national and regional echelons. Every day, people from all walks of life and in different careers engage in varied activities with the aim of attaining their life goals and improve their living standards. However, in order to performance effectively at work and in social life, one is required to factor in the concept of time management.

            Over the years, the concept of time management was mainly addressed in organizations, companies and industries. Employees were required to manage time effectively so that to meet deadlines, increase productivity and maintain organization identity and reputation in the public domain. Time management was analysed from a macro perspective rather than at the micro level.

            However, the concept of management should not only be addressed in organizations, industries and companies but also in learning institutions. Most students affirm that time management are one of the key factors affecting their academic performance (Palmer& Schoorman, 2007).  A greater percentage of students are fond of submitting class assignment, term papers and course work later as they fail to plan and manage their time effectively.  In a similar vein, majority of students do their class assignment a few hours to the deadline; an idea that adversely affect their academic performance. Studies indicate that effective time management skills directly influence the student’s academic performance and social life (Kearns, & Gardiner 2007). Those students, who effectively manage their time, tend to score highly in academic performance and social life. This is based on the fact that effective time management reduces stress, depression and anxiety on students thus making learning an enjoyable course. On the other hand, students facing the challenge of time management suffer from academic stress, depression and other psychological disorders (Kelly, 2002). This is because they are compelled to cram large volume of information for a short time. They also suffer from disorganization and worries attributed to less sleep.

            In last few years, the level of academic performance at the university has decreased steadily, especially among GCU students. This has raised a concern both from the student, parents and the entire university fraternity. A number of factors have played a key role in lowering academic performance but, time management is the main factor.

            Students in high institutions waste most of their valuable time on attending parties, visiting friends, watching movies and going out with their peers. Such activities culminate to ineffective time management and, attribute to dismal academic performance among the students (Misra, & McKean, 2000). However, it imperative to state that such activities do not solely affect students’ academic performance but also promotes social interaction and cohesiveness among the students. The bottom line is the fact that students should maintain a balance between their academic life and social life through implementing effective time management strategies.

            With the current stiff competition in the labour market, learning institutions are faced with the task of improving their academic credentials so that they can produce highly skilled graduates who meet the needs and desires of the current labour market. Today, most employers have set their standards at a high rank, and it is only students who are highly qualified can be hired to occupy such positions. However, one way to ensure that learning institutions adequately prepare their students to compete fairly in the labour market is by adapting viable time management strategies.

            It is against this draw back that this research examines the extent in which time management can achieve success at university success for GCU students.


            The methodology a researcher uses plays a pivotal role in meeting the research objectives. However, the research design and research method employed in a study depends on research objectives, the topic as well as what the research wish to achieve. However, for the purpose of this research, both qualitative and quantitative research methods coupled with explanatory-cross sectional survey research design will be employed.

Research method

            Qualitative methods involve the process of collecting information that cannot be quantified using numbers, but it can only be described. On the other hand, quantitative method involves the process of collecting information that can be quantified using numbers (Creswell, 2012). In quantitative method, the researcher mainly collects data from an emic perspective. This implies that the data collected is based on the participants’ response. Both qualitative and quantitative methods complement each other. Both methods enable the research to collect data, analyse, interpret and represent it accurately. Data collected using quantitative, and qualitative methods are free from biases and the influence of extraneous variables thus enhancing its credibility, reliability and accuracy.

Research Design

            Explanatory –cross sectional survey research design will be used in conducting this study. The study is cross-sectional in the sense that it will involve collecting data from a larger population at one single time. It is explanatory because it involves how time management can achieve success at the university for GCU students and provide a better understanding of the topic. Explanatory-cross sectional survey design is appropriate as it helps the researcher to collect accurate data that will answer his research questions and research objective effectively hence enhancing validity of the study. It is less costly and effective on the basis of time compared to other research designs. It helps the researcher have an insight understanding of the topic and/or variables under investigation thus enhancing the accuracy of data collected.

Sampling procedure and sampling size.

            The sample size of 500 students will be drawn from a sample population of 1000 GCU students at the university. This sample size is suitable for study in the sense that it is a representative sample for the whole population. Simple random sampling method will be used to select a suitable representative sample both consisting of male and female students. Random sampling method is suitable in the sense that it eliminates baseness thus enhancing accuracy of data collected (Mellenbergh, & Hand 2012). It provides participants with equal chance to take part in the study thus enhancing representability.

Instruments of data collection

            The research will use questionnaires in collecting data. Both structured and unstructured questionnaires will be used in data collection. Questionnaires are effective since they enable the researcher collect detailed data pertaining to variables under investigation (Burns, 2000). Questionnaires items will be constructed based on research objectives and questionnaire thus enhancing validity. A pilot study will be conducted to ascertain the reliability of the questionnaires using Half-split reliability test. From the test, an Alpha coefficient of 0.08 was established; affirming suitability of the questionnaires.

Data collection, analysis and representation

            Participants will be administered with questionnaires to fill. The researcher adhered to ethical considerations by explicating informed consent, confidentiality, voluntary and harmlessness. Data collected will be edited, coded, analysed and represented.  Excel Spread Sheet and Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) will be used in data analysis. Pie charts, bar graphs, and tables will be used to represent the data since they are easy to interpret and understand.

Results and Discussion

            Time management was realized to be one of the factors affecting the student’s academic performance at the university. Eighty percent of students affirm to mismanage their time through going to parties, watching movies, “hugging out” with friends and visiting their relatives. Research findings affirm that motivation also influences the extent to which students manage their time effectively. Students who effectively manage their time scored highly on motivational level compared to their counterparts. They are less anxious, stressful and depressed compared to their counterparts who show signs of depression, stress, worry and anxiety.

            Majority of students indicated that they performed dismal in class because they failed to plan their time as per university calendar. They use less time on course work, class assignment and revising for exams and use the rest of the time on personal issues. Sometime, students underestimate the amount of time required to complete certain tasks in class; an idea that contribute to poor class performance. Students acknowledged that peers influence time management strategy. Occasionally, those students with effective time management skills are influenced by others and end up mismanaging their time and vice versa.

            Students affirmed that course instructors also contribute in time mismanagement. They provide students with a lot of course work materials to read and do assignments. However, the impending issue is that the work is not well distributed to enable students plan their time well thus adding academic stress. Effective distribution of course work will play a crucial role in time management at the university.

            Limitations are inevitable in any research. In this case, the researcher may have faced the challenge of generalizeability there the information collect is inconsistent with one on the ground, influence of extraneous variables and limitation of research design.

Conclusion and recommendation

            Time management is an integral component in the success of any learning organization. It also helps in enhancing achievement of GCU students at the university. However, effective time management skills enhance students’ academic performance and social life. It enhances motivational level, confidence and reduces stress, depression and worries. Time management strategy is also influenced by one’s peers either positively or negatively. In order to enhance time management, students recommended that time management training program should be introduced at the university. Lecturers should distribute course work assignments effectively, and students should inculcate in a culture of time management. Implementing these recommendations will play a crucial role in enhancing achievement among GCU students at the university.


Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Mellenbergh, G. J., & Hand, D. J. (2012). Advising on research methods: a consultant’s companion. Huizen: Johannes van Kessel Publishing

Kearns, H., & Gardiner, M. (2007). Is it time well spent? The relationship between time management behaviours, perceived effectiveness and work-related morale and distress in a university context. Higher Education Research and Development, 26, 235-247.

Burns, R (2000) Introduction to Research Methods, London, Sage.

Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2000). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16, 41-51.

Kelly, W.E. (2002), “Harnessing the river of time: a theoretical framework of time use efficiency with suggestions for counselors”, Journal of Employment Counseling, Vol. 39, pp. 12-21

Palmer, D.K. and Schoorman, F. (2007), “Unpackaging the multiple aspects of time in

Polychronicity”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 14 Nos 3-4, pp. 323-44.



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