Music Therapy Approach

Literature Review of a Music Therapy Approach or Specific Music Therapy Intervention (minimum 5 pages double spaced).

Choose one Music Therapy Approach that we have discussed this year (i.e. The Nordoff Robbins Approach, Neurologic Music Therapy , GIM Guided Imagery and Music, Psychoanalytic Music Therapy ) or a Specific Music Therapy Intervention (e.g. Melodic Intonation Therapy, Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation, Musical Improvisation, Songwriting, Lyric Analysis etc ) and write a literature review of the different work being done with that approach/intervention with one specific population or with multiple populations.

1.   See requirements above for ALL PAPERS regarding APA format and Appropriate Research articles

2.   In your discussion of any specific population, you must include DSM V definitions from the DSM V, or relevant diagnoses information from an appropriate source (see above for appropriate source).

3.   You must include information from our discussion of AMTA Standards of Clinical Practice and discuss the Referral, Assessment, Treatment planning, Documentation, Implementation and Termination process of Music Therapy.

https://www.musictherapy.org/about/standards/

This is an excerpt from the AMTA Standards of Clinical Practice downloaded on November 19, 2019 from https://www.musictherapy.org/about/standards/

General Standards

1.0 Standard I – Referral and Acceptance

A client will be accepted for music therapy in accordance with specific criteria.

1.1 A client may be a candidate for music therapy when a cognitive, communication, psychological, educational, social, or physiological need might be ameliorated or prevented by such services.

1.2 A client may be referred for an initial music therapy assessment by:

1.2.1 a Music Therapist

1.2.2 members of other disciplines or agencies

1.2.3 self

1.2.4 parents, guardians, advocates or designated representatives

1.3 The final decision to accept a client for music therapy assessment will be made by a Music Therapist.

2.0 Standard II – Assessment

A client will be assessed by a Music Therapist for music therapy services.

2.1 The music therapy assessment will include the general categories of psychological, cognitive, communicative, social, and physiological functioning focused on the client’s needs and strengths. The assessment will also determine the client’s responses to music, music skills and musical preferences.

2.2 The music therapy assessment will explore the client’s culture.  This can include but is not limited to race, ethnicity, language, religion/spirituality, socioeconomic status, family experiences, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, and social organizations.

2.3 All music therapy assessment methods will be appropriate for the client’s chronological age, diagnoses, functioning level, and culture(s). The methods may include, but need not be limited to, observation during music or other situations, interview, verbal and nonverbal interventions, and testing. Information may also be obtained from different disciplines or sources such as the past and present medical and social history in accordance with HIPAA permission regulation.

2.4 All interpretations of test results will be based on appropriate norms or criterion referenced datavii.

2.5 The music therapy assessment procedures and results will become a part of the client’s file.

2.6 The final decision to accept a client for music therapy services, either direct or consultative, will be made by a Music Therapist and, when applicable, will be in conjunction with the interdisciplinary team.  Screeningvi may be used as part of this process.

2.7 The results, conclusions, and implications of the music therapy assessment will become the basis for the client’s music therapy program and will be communicated to others involved with provision of services to the client. When appropriate, the results will be communicated to the client.

2.8 When assessment indicates the client’s need for other services, the Music Therapist will make an appropriate referral.

3.0 Standard III – Treatment Planning

The Music Therapist will develop an individualized treatment plan based upon the music therapy assessment, the client’s prognosis, and applicable information from other disciplines and sources. The client will participate in program plan development when appropriate. The music therapy program plan will be designed to:

3.1 Help the client attain and maintain the maximum level of functioning.

3.2 Comply with federal, state, and facility regulations.

3.3 Delineate the type, frequency, and duration of music therapy involvement.

3.4 Contain goalsviii that focus on assessed needs and strengths of the client.

3.5 Contain objectivesix which are operationally defined for achieving the stated goals within estimated time frames.

3.6 Specify procedures, including music and music materials, for attaining the objectives.

3.6.1 The Music Therapist will include music, instruments, and musical elements, from the client’s culture as appropriate.

3.7 Provide for periodic evaluationx and appropriate modifications as needed.

3.8 Optimize, according to the best professional judgmentxi of the Music Therapist:

3.8.1 The program plans of other disciplines.

3.8.2 Established principles of normal growth and development.

3.9 Change to meet the priority needs of the client during crisis intervention.

4.0 Standard IV – Implementation

The Music Therapist will deliver services according to the written program plan and will:

4.1 Strive for the highest level and quality of music involvement consistent with the functioning level of the client.

4.1.1 The Music Therapist’s provision of music will reflect his or her best abilities as a musician.

4.1.2 Appropriate musical instruments and materials, as well as the best possible sound reproduction equipment should be used in music therapy services.

4.1.3 The Music Therapist will make every effort to ensure safe and quality client care.

4.2 Use methodology that is consistent with recent advances in health, safetyxii and infection control practices.

4.3 Maintain close communication with other individuals involved with the client.

4.4 Record the schedule and procedures used in music therapy treatment.

4.5 Evaluate the client’s responses periodically to determine progress toward the goals and objectives.

4.6 Incorporate the results of such evaluations in subsequent treatment.

4.7 Consider the psychological effects of therapeutic separation as termination of services approaches.

5.0 Standard V – Documentation

The Music Therapist will document the client’s referral to music therapy, assessment, placement, treatment plan, and ongoing progress in music therapy in a manner consistent with federal, state, and other regulations and policies.

5.1 The Music Therapist will periodically document the client’s level of functioning with regard to the goals and objectives.

5.2 The documentation of progress will describe significant intervention techniques and the client’s responses to them.

5.3 In all documentation relating to music therapy services, the Music Therapist will:

5.3.1 Write in an objective, professional style based on observable client responses.

5.3.2 Include the date, signature, and professional status of the therapist.

5.3.3 Place such documentation in the client’s file and maintain its confidentiality unless proper authorization for release is obtained.

5.4 Upon obtaining written client permission, the Music Therapist will document and disseminate information to key service providers to ensure consistency of services.

5.5 The Music Therapist will document referrals made to other sources and will include plans for music therapy services as appropriate.

5.6 The documentation of all referrals will include date of referral, source of referral, and services requested.

6.0 Standard VI – Termination of Services

The Music Therapist will terminate music therapy services when the client has attained stated goals and objectives, fails to benefit from services, can no longer be scheduled, or is discharged. At the time of termination, consideration will be given for scheduling periodic reevaluation to determine the need for follow-up services. The Music Therapist will prepare the music therapy termination plan in accordance with federal, state, and facility regulations. The termination plan will:

6.1 Further optimize the goals of the individualized music therapy treatment plan.

6.2 Coordinate with the individualized treatment plans of other services received by the client.

6.3 Allow sufficient time for approval, coordination, and effective implementation whenever possible.

6.4 Summarize the client’s progress and functioning level at the time of termination.

ADDICTIVE DISORDERS

These Standards of Clinical Practice are designed specifically for the Music Therapist working with clientele who have addictive disorders. The Music Therapist will adhere to the General Standards of Clinical Practice (which are reprinted in sequence in this section), as well as the specific standards for clients with addictive disorders described herein. The Music Therapist will also adhere to the standards of other applicable music therapy service areas.

Music therapy with clientele who have addictive disorders is the specialized use of music to restore, maintain, and improve mental, physical, and social-emotional functioning.

1.0 Standard I – Referral and Acceptance

A client will be accepted for music therapy in accordance with specific criteria.

1.1 A client may be a candidate for music therapy when a cognitive, communication, psychological, educational, social, or physiological need might be ameliorated or prevented by such services.

1.2 A client may be referred for an initial music therapy assessment by:

1.2.1 a Music Therapist

1.2.2 members of other disciplines or agencies

1.2.3 self

1.2.4 parents, guardians, advocates or designated representatives

1.2.5 Members of a treatment team

1.3 The final decision to accept a client for music therapy assessment will be made by a Music Therapist.

2.0 Standard II – Assessment

A client will be assessed by a Music Therapist for music therapy services.

2.1 The music therapy assessment will include the general categories of psychological, cognitive, communicative, social, and physiological functioning focused on the client’s needs and strengths. The assessment will also determine the client’s responses to music, music skills and musical preferences.

2.2 The music therapy assessment will explore the client’s culture.  This can include but is not limited to race, ethnicity, language, religion/spirituality, socioeconomic status, family experiences, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, and social organizations.

2.3 All music therapy assessment methods will be appropriate for the client’s chronological age, diagnoses, functioning level, and culture(s). The methods may include, but need not be limited to, observation during music or other situations, interview, verbal and nonverbal interventions, and testing. Information may also be obtained from different disciplines or sources such as the past and present medical and social history in accordance with HIPAA permission regulation.

2.4 All interpretations of test results will be based on appropriate norms or criterion referenced datavii.

2.5 The music therapy assessment procedures and results will become a part of the client’s file.

2.6 The final decision to accept a client for music therapy services, either direct or consultative, will be made by a Music Therapist and, when applicable, will be in conjunction with the interdisciplinary team.  Screeningvi may be used as part of this process.

2.7 The results, conclusions, and implications of the music therapy assessment will become the basis for the client’s music therapy program and will be communicated to others involved with provision of services to the client. When appropriate, the results will be communicated to the client.

2.8 When assessment indicates the client’s need for other services, the Music Therapist will make an appropriate referral.

2.9 The music therapy assessment will include current diagnosis and history will be performed in a manner congruent with the patient’s level of functioning to address the following areas:

2.9.1 Emotional status

2.9.2 Motor development (fine, gross, perceptual-motor)

2.9.3 Developmental level

2.9.4 Independent functioning and adaptive needs

2.9.5 Sensory acuity and perception

2.9.6 Attending behaviors

2.9.7 Sensory processing, planning, and task execution

2.9.8 Substance use or abuse

2.9.9 Vocational status

2.9.10 Reality orientation

2.9.11 Educational background

2.9.12 Coping skills

2.9.13 Infection control precautions

2.9.14 Medical regime and possible side effects.

2.9.15 Mental status

2.9.16 Pain tolerance and threshold level

2.9.17 Spatial and body concepts

2.9.18 Long and short term memory

2.9.19 Client’s use of music

3.0 Standard III – Treatment Planning

The Music Therapist will prepare a written individualized program plan based upon the music therapy assessment, the client’s prognosis, and applicable information from other disciplines and sources. The client will participate in program plan development when appropriate. The music therapy program plan will be designed to:

3.1 Help the client attain and maintain the maximum level of functioning.

3.2 Comply with federal, state, and facility regulations.

3.3 Delineate the type, frequency, and duration of music therapy involvement.

3.4 Contain goalsviii that focus on assessed needs and strengths of the client.

3.5 Contain objectivesix which are operationally defined for achieving the stated goals within estimated time frames.

3.6 Specify procedures, including music and music materials, for attaining the objectives.

3.6.1 The Music Therapist will include music, instruments, and musical elements, from the client’s culture as appropriate.

3.7 Provide for periodic evaluationx and appropriate modifications as needed.

3.8 Optimize, according to the best professional judgmentxi of the Music Therapist:

3.8.1 The program plans of other disciplines.

3.8.2 Established principles of normal growth and development.

3.9 Change to meet the priority needs of the client during crisis intervention.

3.10 Comply with infection control procedures.

3.11 Incorporate medical precautions as necessary.

4.0 Standard IV – Implementation

The Music Therapist will deliver services according to the written program plan and will:

4.1 Strive for the highest level and quality of music involvement consistent with the functioning level of the client.

4.1.1 The Music Therapist’s provision of music will reflect his or her best abilities as a musician.

4.1.2 Appropriate musical instruments and materials, as well as the best possible sound reproduction equipment should be used in music therapy services.

4.1.3 The Music Therapist will make every effort to ensure safe and quality client care.

4.2 Use methodology that is consistent with recent advances in health, safetyxii and infection control practices.

4.3 Maintain close communication with other individuals involved with the client.

4.4 Record the schedule and procedures used in music therapy treatment.

4.5 Evaluate the client’s responses periodically to determine progress toward the goals and objectives.

4.6 Incorporate the results of such evaluations in subsequent treatment.

4.7 Consider the psychological effects of therapeutic separation as termination of services approaches.

4.8 Include family member participation in the treatment plan when appropriate.

4.9 Disclose information to the patient and the patient’s family consistent with the physician’s judgment and discretion in accordance with regulations when appropriate.

4.10 Disclose information consistent with the treatment team’s recommendations in accordance with federal, state, and local confidentiality regulations.

5.0 Standard V – Documentation

The Music Therapist will document the client’s referral to music therapy, assessment, placement, treatment plan, and ongoing progress in music therapy in a manner consistent with federal, state, and other regulations and policies.

5.1 The Music Therapist will periodically document the client’s level of functioning with regard to the goals and objectives.

5.2 The documentation of progress will describe significant intervention techniques and the client’s responses to them.

5.3 In all documentation relating to music therapy services, the Music Therapist will:

5.3.1 Write in an objective, professional style based on observable client responses.

5.3.2 Include the date, signature, and professional status of the therapist.

5.3.3 Place such documentation in the client’s file and maintain its confidentiality unless proper authorization for release is obtained.

5.4 Upon obtaining written client permission, the Music Therapist will document and disseminate information to key service providers to ensure consistency of services.

5.5 The Music Therapist will document referrals made to other sources and will include plans for music therapy services as appropriate.

5.6 The documentation of all referrals will include date of referral, source of referral, and services requested.

6.0 Standard VI – Termination of Services

The Music Therapist will terminate music therapy services when the client has attained stated goals and objectives, fails to benefit from services, can no longer be scheduled, or is discharged. At the time of termination, consideration will be given for scheduling periodic reevaluation to determine the need for follow-up services. The Music Therapist will prepare the music therapy termination plan in accordance with federal, state, and facility regulations. The termination plan will:

6.1 Further optimize the goals of the individualized music therapy treatment plan.

6.2 Coordinate with the individualized treatment plans of other services received by the client.

6.3 Allow sufficient time for approval, coordination, and effective implementation whenever possible.

6.4 Summarize the client’s progress and functioning level at the time of termination.

6.5 At the time of termination of services, document an evaluation of the client’s functional abilities in the following areas: physiological, affective, sensory, communicative, social-emotional, and cognitive functioning.

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